Unveiling Arc Flash Studies in Solar Photovoltaic Systems

How to ensure commercial PV installations meet safety standards for permitting, installation, operation and maintenance.

Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have surged in popularity as a sustainable and renewable energy solution, offering both environmental benefits and economic advantages. As the adoption of solar PV systems accelerates, so does the necessity to ensure safety standards are met during installation, operation, and maintenance.

One crucial aspect of safety assessment in solar PV systems is the evaluation of arc flash hazards. Arc flash studies play a pivotal role in understanding and mitigating potential risks associated with electrical arcs in these systems. This article delves into the significance of arc flash studies in solar PV systems, highlighting the differences in calculations compared to conventional systems and the emerging trend of requiring these studies for permitting commercial solar PV installations in various municipalities.


Arc flash refers to an electrical explosion caused by an unintended electrical discharge or short circuit. It releases a burst of energy, creating intense heat, blinding light, and dangerous pressure waves. These phenomena can cause severe injuries to personnel, equipment damage, and downtime. Arc flash studies aim to assess the potential risks posed by such events and develop strategies to mitigate them effectively.

In conventional electrical systems, arc flash studies typically involve calculating incident energy levels, arc flash boundaries, and the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) required for workers. These calculations are based on factors such as available fault current, clearing time of protective devices, and equipment configuration.


While the fundamental principles of arc flash studies remain consistent, there are notable differences in calculations for solar PV systems compared to conventional systems. In solar PV systems, the presence of photovoltaic arrays and inverters introduces unique factors that must be considered:

DC Arcs: Unlike conventional systems that primarily deal with alternating current (AC), solar PV systems generate direct current (DC) electricity. DC arcs have different characteristics compared to AC arcs, including higher sustained voltages and different arc behavior. Therefore, arc flash studies for solar PV systems must account for these differences in arc energy calculations.

Array Configurations: Solar PV arrays consist of multiple interconnected modules arranged in various configurations, such as series, parallel, or series-parallel combinations. The configuration of the array affects factors such as fault current distribution and fault clearing times, which in turn influence arc flash hazard levels.

Inverter Dynamics: Inverters play a crucial role in converting DC power generated by solar panels into usable AC power. The behavior of inverters during fault conditions, including fault current limitation and response times, influences arc flash hazards. Understanding these dynamics is essential for accurate arc flash assessments.

Shadowing Effects: In large solar PV installations, shadowing effects caused by nearby objects or partial shading of individual modules can impact the uniformity of sunlight exposure. Variations in solar irradiance affect the performance of PV modules and may influence fault currents and arc flash hazard levels.


Recognizing the importance of safety in solar PV installations, many municipalities and regulatory bodies are increasingly requiring arc flash studies as part of the permitting process for commercial solar PV systems. These requirements are driven by several factors:

Occupational Safety: Ensuring the safety of workers and personnel involved in the installation, maintenance, and operation of solar PV systems is paramount. Arc flash studies provide valuable insights into potential hazards and help establish appropriate safety protocols and PPE requirements.

Code Compliance: Building codes and electrical standards are evolving to address the unique challenges posed by renewable energy systems like solar PV. Compliance with these codes often entails conducting arc flash studies that are certified by licensed engineers, to assess and mitigate risks associated with electrical hazards.

Liability and Risk Management: Property owners, developers, and installers have a vested interest in minimizing liability and mitigating risks associated with solar PV installations. Comprehensive arc flash studies demonstrate due diligence in identifying and addressing potential hazards, reducing the likelihood of accidents and associated liabilities.

Public Safety: Municipalities prioritize public safety and well-being, and regulating the safety aspects of solar PV installations is part of that mandate. Requiring arc flash studies helps ensure that solar PV systems are installed and operated in a manner that minimizes risks to the community and the environment.


Arc flash studies play a vital role in ensuring the safety and reliability of solar photovoltaic systems. While similar in principle to arc flash studies for conventional electrical systems, calculations for solar PV systems must account for unique factors such as DC arcs, array configurations, inverter dynamics, and shadowing effects.

As the adoption of solar PV systems continues to grow, the trend of requiring arc flash studies for permitting commercial installations is expected to gain momentum. By embracing comprehensive safety assessments, stakeholders can foster the widespread deployment of solar PV technology while prioritizing the protection of workers, property, and the public. ESW

Dave Hernandez, PE, CEM, GBE, CESCP, CM&AI is Co-Founder and Partner of Arc Flash Brokerage, LLC serving the industry as a distinguished Professional Engineer licensed in 52 U.S. jurisdictions. He has held responsible charge of over 2,000 arc flash projects throughout his career and is frequently retained by international design firms, electric utilities, and law practices.

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